Various Planets and Satellites in Solar System-Mercury

 Various Planets and Satellites in Solar System-Mercury

Being a little bit larger than Earth’s Moon, Mercury is considered to be the smallest planet of our solar system and is the closest planet to the Sun.

As Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun, it is considered that the Sun would look three times larger from the surface of the Mercury as compared to the view from the Earth. Moreover, it is also estimated that the sunlight will be seven times brighter in comparison to that faced by the Earth. Despite being the closest planet to the Sun, Mercury is not the hottest planet, however, the density of the atmosphere is pretty similar to that of Venus. Mercury is considered to be in second place in terms of density as compared to Earth.

About Mercury

Due to the Elliptical-egg shaped-orbit of Mercury and the slow speed of rotation of the planet, the sunrise and sunset appear to be brief along with the twice rising of the Sun in some parts of the planet.  The temperature at the surface of Mercury has both features of being extremely hot and extremely cold. Because the planet is very close to the Sun, the temperature in the daytime reaches up to approx 800 degrees or Fahrenheit which is equal to 430 degrees Celsius. However, despite having an atmosphere for retaining the heat the temperature at night falls up to – 290 degrees Fahrenheit which is equal to -180 degrees Celsius.

Mercury is considered to be the fastest planet in the solar system due to the fastest zipping speed of 88 days which it takes to complete one revolution around the Sun.

The naming of the Planet

Mercury is considered one of the five planets that can be seen through the naked eye. It is considerably named after the swift-footed Roman Messenger God because of its fastest revolutionary speed of 88 days. It was first observed in the seventeenth century by Galileo Galilei along with Thomas Harriot.

How far from the Sun is Mercury?

The orbit of Mercury is elongated and tends to take an oval-shaped course of the Sun. Therefore the distance from the Sun varies throughout the circuit of the planet and is estimated to have 46 million to 70 million kilometers.

The speed of the planet is approximately around 47 kilometers per second which makes it 60% faster than the speed of the Earth.

How big is Mercury?

It is estimated by scientists that Mercury is slightly larger than the Earth’s Moon i.s approx 15329 kilometers in the equatorial region. From the core of the planet to the surface the distance comes around 2440 kilometers, having a size of 2.6 times smaller than the Earth.

Atmospheric Conditions of Mercury

It is said by the scientists that Mercury contains a little atmosphere with the inclusion of oxygen, sodium, hydrogen, helium along with potassium as well. The lean atmosphere of Mercury or the exosphere tends to prevent or restrict the impacts of the extraterrestrial objects, which later on leaves the surface littered through craters making its appearance pretty similar to that of the Earth’s Moon. The surface of the planet is terrestrial; which means it is typically made of silicate rock or different types of metals. Mercury is estimated to be mainly made up of Iron.

Does Mercury have Moons?

Mercury does not have any Moon. This is because of its close proximity to the Sun which results in the high gravitational pull of the planet’s orbit that pulls every object out of the orbit. 

How long is a day in Mercury?

In Mercury, the days are estimated to be very lengthy due to the slow speed of rotation of the planet. This also supports the calculation that one long day is equal to the 58.65 days on Earth. However, it has the fastest orbital speed which makes it take only 88 Earth days to complete one revolution around the Sun. This incident illustrates the proportion of timescale in mercury as three earth days are equal to one pair of years on this planet.

The sunrise on this planet is unusual to that on the Earth. This is because of the elongated orbit of the planet along with the slow rotational speed for which the rise of the Sun appears to be brief before setting and rising. During the time of Sunset, the reverse system takes place along with the twice appearance of Sunset in some places of the planet. 

It has been observed by scientists that Mercury almost spins vertically on the axis which leads to sun rays not reaching the polar region of the planet. This is also a typical reason for not experiencing any seasonal changes on the planet.


The researchers have concluded various aspects of the planet Mercury in this topic. This topic also includes the origin of the planet along with the discovery of the planet in the seventeenth century. The atmospheric conditions of the planet along with the description of the size of Mercury are also highlighted by the researcher in this paper. The proper reason behind the naming of the planet along with its surface conditions is mentioned in this research paper. Moreover, the researcher has also included the reason for not having any moon on the planet along with the length of days as compared to the Earth.