Unification of Italy

Unification of Italy

The papal Rome (1870) and annexation of Venetia (1866) marked a unification of Italy, which is all about the war between Austrians and Piedmontese for helping the French in 1859.

At the beginning of 1840, the Unification of Italy united several states of the Peninsula into a single kingdom of Italy by different social and political movements. The transfer of united Italy into a political and cultural entity is called Risorgimento. Giuseppe Garibaldi was unsuccessful in creating Italy united as an independent democracy. Giuseppe Mazzini is one of the most successful leaders in creating Italy united.

Camillo Di Cavour is one of the great democrats who used realpolitik as a successful tool for making a united Italy under Sardinia. ‘Realpolitik’ is the major policy that was constructed in terms of self-interest and power of idiomatic nation-states in Italy. The Government of Sardinia included their domain in the French and British side after the Crimean War in 1858 by using a press conference. In 1859 Austria declared battle against Sardinia and it was knocked over by the French army. 

What is the Unification of Italy? 

The unification of Italy was started in 1815 in Vienna and 1871, Rome became the new capital of Italy then the total process of unification was completed. It was a two-step procedure; first was to gain freedom from Austria and second was the process of independent states of Italy into a single domain. These divisions of the Italian Peninsula helped the process of the unification of Italy. The beginning of Italian unification was the Austrian-Franco War, which occurred in the year of 1859.

 Cavour led the process of unification by a diplomatic alliance in France and it started while forming a new united Europe and Italy by Giuseppe Mazzini. The process of unification of Italy started through generating votes for the locals in northern states under Italy from 1859 to 1860. It was a major step to join the domain of Sardinia through the Italian unification. The important impetus towards the unification came as a reform by the French army while they pressurized the central Italian states during the Napoleonic and French wars (1796-1815).

Background of Unification of Italy 

“The Italian Peninsula” was classified throughout Italy into several states upon the Roman king in 476 AD. In 1830 the unification of Italy resulted in French revolutions in several Italian states. Giuseppe Garibaldi was the first Democrat who took part in the insurrection in the year of 1848; however, the attempt failed several times. With the support of Giuseppe Garibaldi to the Victor Emmanuel 2, it helped in returning to Italy with several volunteers from Naples and Sicily.

 The insurrection was successful with the help of the Redshirts army of Garibaldi in 1860, which captured the island of Naples and Sicily. Meanwhile, the Italian northern states accepted Victor Emmanuel 2 as their emperor and in 1861 Sicily and Naples were handled by the king of Italy as their kingdom. However, Rome and Venice have concluded states under the foreign kingdom and changing the capital to Rome in 1871 helps to complete the unification of Italy.

Timeline of Unification   of Italy 

The timeline of Italian unification is described below:

  • 1849- In this year Venice was defeated by the Austrian army that created a major effect by crushing so many people in Venetia.
  • 1858- Cavour and Napoleon III decided to organize war against Austria by gaining Venetia, Lombardy, Modena and Parma to Italy.
  • 1859- The importance of this year was Cavour’s return to Venetia and Napoleon III back out from war with Austria. In this year Sardinia captured Modena, Tuscany and Parma and Lombardy was taken by Sardinia.
  • 1860- Sardinia captured central Italian states by giving Savoy and nice to the French in this year. Another incident occurred this year as Emmanuel II became the first emperor of Italy with the help of Garibaldi and their Redshirt army. Garibaldi resized Palermo as a capital with the help of the British government. After establishing the domain of Victor Emmanuel II in Sicily, this year Garibaldi took the power of Naples and handed over his power to the king.
  • 1861- “Camillo Di Cavour ” died this year after seeing that the Papal States were not controlled by Italy. Established official kingdom Italy in Venetia.
  • 1867- Garibaldi seeks Papal States and Rome apart from the attempt that fails and the revolution in Rome was suppressed.
  • 1870- The army of Italy slowly moved towards Rome and captured Rome and created their domain in Rome forcefully. 
  • 1871- This is the year when the unification of Italy was completed by moving the Italian capital to Rome.

Leaders in Unification of Italy 

The unification of Italy brought so many strong leaders like Giuseppe Garibaldi, Giuseppe Mazzini and Cavour, their work is marked in world history. Giuseppe Garibaldi is the most involved leader, who gave support in the process of unification. Cavour took Realpolitik as a tool to unite Italy in 1861. After the revolution in Italy in 1848, Giuseppe Garibaldi recruited many volunteers, who supported the independence of Italy at the end of the First World War and established the Roman republic. He promoted the goal of Giuseppe Mazzini of united Italy as a permanent monarchy. He was successful in defeating the United Kingdom and royal troops with the support of local reinforcement. 


The unification of Italy tells about the journey of capturing Rome after the annexation of Trieste, Trentino and Friuli at the end of “World War I”. It is officially called the independence of the Italian War while moving its capital Florence to Rome in 1871. This Risorgimento was defined as an Italian movement that helped in the unity of Italian states in 1819 and it supported Emperor Victor Emmanuel 2 to become the first superior emperor of Italy.