The Indian Subcontinent: Position, Extent and Physical Features-India Facts and Figures

The Indian Subcontinent: Position, Extent and Physical Features-India Facts and Figures

The facts and figures of India ensure the necessary information regarding India and also its geographic extent. However, India is considered to be the Seventh largest country in size in the world with a whopping 1400 million population.

The study introduces the position and extent of the Indian subcontinent. It explores the facts and figures of India. The purpose of the study is based on the physical features of India where the geographic extent of the country will be evaluated. However, the importance of the location of India will also be a major area of discussion. The study ensures the states and capitals of India through facts. Moreover, the idea is to deliver a clear concept about the structure of the Indian subcontinent that is contiguous to the mainland of the Indian subcontinent consisting of India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Nepal etc.          

Position and Extent of India 

India forms part of the large continental landmass of Eurasia. India is situated on one of the Peninsulas of Southern Asia. As far as the extent of India is concerned, the country extends from Kashmir in the North to Kanyakumari in the South. The Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are located on the eastern and western sides of Peninsular India. The latitudinal extent of India is from 8 degrees 4’ north to 37 degrees 6’ North. The location of India, on the other hand, lies in the eastern and northern hemispheres. The significance of the location of the country is due to the fact that it is situated on the major sea routes of the world. However, India shares maritime contacts with Africa and South-west Asia due to the impressive features of the location. It has offered India to take advantage of the Suez Canal for trade purposes with Europe and North America.            

Size of India 

India is regarded as the Seventh largest country in the World and the second-largest country in Asia in terms of Population. The size of the country is about 3.30 million square km. and is nearly equal to the area of the European continent excluding Russia. However, India is considered eight times as large as Japan and is said to be the second-largest country in the world after China in terms of population. Moreover, the geographic features of the world suggest that no continent in the world except Asia has a larger population than that of India. In addition, India shares 2.20% of the earth’s area and about one-sixth of the total population of the world. The mainland of the Indian subcontinent comprising India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, Nepal extends between  68 degrees 7’E and 97 degrees 25’E longitudes. However, the Indian subcontinent starts from 6 degrees N latitude if the sixth country of the subcontinent Sri Lanka is included on the list.             

India facts and figure 

India is based on the states and union territory capitals including the administrative, judicial as well the legislative capitals.

The executive government offices are found in the administrative capital whereas the state assembly assimilates in the legislative capital.

The Judicial Capital, on the other hand, is the location of state High Courts of India.

India, a union of states, is a Sovereign Socialist Democratic Secular Republic with a parliamentary system of government.   

The Republic is governed in terms of the Constitution that came into effect on January 26, 1950.   The Indian Legislature is bi-cameral comprising Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

India has altogether 28 states and 8 Union territories where Delhi is said to be the National Capital of India.

The facts of India ensure that the summer capital of J&K is Jammu whereas Srinagar turns out to be the winter capital of J&K during summer with its Judicial capital becoming Srinagar.   

According to the Andhra Pradesh Recognition Act 2014, Hyderabad is the Joint capital of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana for a maximum of 10 years.

Indian Railway is the second-largest rail transport network in the world whereas it boasts of becoming the largest rail network in Asia.

Indian Railway was nationalised in 1950 and it has been found from the Indian Railway history that the Chenab Bridge is the highest rail bridge in the world.

The Taj Mahal is among one of the wonders of the world and is situated on the bank of river Yamuna in Agra.  

The newly recognised Union Territory, Ladakh boasts of sharing the Ladakh Road, the highest motorable road in the world at over 19,000 feet.

 India became the first country to mine diamonds and the country remained the only source of diamonds in the world for almost 1000 years from the 4th century.         


It can be concluded that India is a country rich in heritage and culture. It is defined as the second-largest country in the world after China in terms of population. No other continent of the world except Asia is as large as India is based on the population structure. It has been encountered that India extends from Kashmir to Kanyakumari having 28 states and 8 Union territories. Several facts of India have been discussed in this study that ensures some unknown and interesting information about the country.