The Indian Subcontinent: Position, Extent and Physical Features

The Indian Subcontinent: Position, Extent and Physical Features

India has a specific and one of the oldest civilizations across the world that lie in the Indian Plain and the Great mountain of North. Along with this, the physical division of India is separated by the natural configuration.

The study introduces the physical division of India that the Himalayas are situated in its north and the south is surrounded by the coastal areas. Along with this, the southwest coast of India is surrounded by a humid region that consists of tropical forests. The physical demography of the country is fully surrounded by different natural forms such as a snow-covered mountain, deserted fields, fertile lands and coastal regions. 

Physical Divisions of the Indian Subcontinent

Physical Features

The largest position of India lies on the Indian plate and some of its position is placed at the northern portion belonging to the Indo-Australian plate. Along with this, the physical division of India lies among five different physical features. 

The Great Mountain of the North

The above-mentioned mountain is considered as the chain of mountains that is spread from the west of the Pamir plateau to the east of the border of India and Myanmar. Furthermore, the concerned mountain of the north has spread for approximately 3,600 km; however, the width belongs to it is between 150 and 400 km. The mountains that lie between the Pamir plateaus to the Indus River from Kashmir are named the Karakoram. Along with this, specific world’s largest mountain glaciers also lie on it such as the Siachen and the Baltoro. Moreover, the mountain lies between the Brahmaputra and Indus are considered the Himalayas and it consists of three individual parallel ranges. The Siwalik, Himachal and the Himadri are the three different parallel planes consisting of the Himalayas. 

The North Indian Plain

A plain land of 2,500 km is spread in the west from Satluj to the east till the Brahmaputra and it lies in the south of the Great mountain of North. Furthermore, it is developed by the alluvium collected by different rivers. In this regard, such rivers are considered as the Ganga, the Indus and the Brahmaputra. 

The Peninsular Plateau

The mentioned plateau is situated in the south of the north Indian plains. Along with this, the concerned plateau is made up of hard rocks such as metamorphic. Furthermore, it is basically divided into the Deccan plateau and Central highlands. On the other hand, the north of this plateau is called the central highlands while it is surrounded from the northwest by Aravalis and in the north by the Ganges plain. 

The Coastal Plains

The plateau of Deccan is surrounded by the coastal plains from two individual sides. Furthermore, the eastern side of the coastal plain is broader than the western side of the mentioned plain. On the other hand, northern Circar is named after the northern part belonging to the mentioned plain while Coromandel coast is derived as the name for its southern part. 

The Islands

Certain small islands are situated in the west of the Kerala coast. Along with this, the collection of all mentioned individual islands is named Lakshadweep Island. However, the Andaman and Nicobar are located in the Bay of Bengal and it is larger in size than other concerned islands. 


India shares its border with different countries as China, Nepal and Bhutan are linked from the north of the country. Along with this, from the northwest direction, Pakistan and Afghanistan share their border with the country. Furthermore, Bangladesh and Myanmar are in the east of India. However, Sri Lanka is also near the country as it is separated from the county through an individual channel in the sea. On the other hand, the position of India is split between six different zones such as Northeast, Central, “North, South, East and West.” Along with this, the country also consists of 8 union territories and 28 individual states. 


The extent of India lies in the northern hemisphere on a latitudinal base while it is situated in the eastern hemisphere on a longitudinal base. Along with this, it extends to 8°4′ north and 37°6′ north in latitudes. However, it also lies between the “68°7′ East and 97°25′ East” in longitudes. Therefore, due to the above-mentioned extent, the time is different for approx 2 hours in between the “eastern and western extremes” of the country. On the other hand, the extent of the country consists of 7516.6 km of coastlines. Furthermore, the tropic of cancer also passes from the 8 different states of the country such as Gujarat, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and many more. 


The study concludes the overall identification of the physical division of the Indian subcontinent. Along with this, the position of India is full of diversity as it is surrounded by a mountain in the north, coastal plain from the south, desert from the west and Plain fertile agricultural land from the east. Furthermore, the eastern side of the country is surrounded by the Brahmaputra valley is fertile land and effective for agriculture. Moreover, the Thar Desert is situated in the west of the country. Moreover, the six different zones consisting of the country are also concluded.