The Indian Subcontinent: Position, Extent and Physical Features-Three Crop Seasons in India

The Indian Subcontinent: Position, Extent and Physical Features-Three Crop Seasons in India

The cropping seasons mainly in India are Rabi, Kharif, and Zaid commonly followed by the domains of resource management. The harvest and cultivated crops of Kharif are the autumn or monsoon season crops and Rabi is mainly spring season crops.

unchanged almost and remains around 25 “Million hectare (Mha)”. Crop specifically estimates the seasonal water irrigation demands in southern Asia, especially in the headwaters of the Himalayan. The run-off shifts are expected as a rapid changing result of the climate in recent years. The insight shifts impact the availability of the water that is increased. Moreover, the details similarly understand the seasonal patterns surprisingly the water demands. The proper assessment hampers the adaptation and coping ways of the water stress.       

Seasonal Impact

In India, the cropping seasons are seasonal patterns of water-irrigations resulting from the typical practices of multiple cropping. In southwest Asia, it is accounted for by the double-cropping introduced by the monsoon-dependent hydrology planting dates. The yield crops are calibrated to the India statistics on the latest state levels. The seasonal land improvements cropping periods and use lead to the estimation of lower demand-irrigation of water. The Kharif cropping season is from July-October during the southwest monsoon and the Rabi cropping season is from October-March (winter). The crops grown between March and June are summer crops. Monsoon summer irrigation the demands of Kharif crops the demand is supposed to be almost. The demand for the production of Rabi in Bangladesh is supposed to be a hundred times higher than usual. The improved estimation of the regions of South-Asia of the production of the food affects the global estimates. India largely produces numerous amounts of mangoes and bananas all over the world and secondly, rice and wheat cultivate several varieties of crops as well.       


Sustainable agriculture

The requirement is based on the management solution of the natural resources that integrates the parameters of socio-economic and biophysical. The new ways of finding precision farming is adopted by the water alleviates irrigation. The major constraint production provides besides diversification opportunities for agriculture and integrates the productivity approaches. The accountant irrigated rate 48.8% of 140 mha and remaining 51.2% rain fed survey data of the cropping system field uses the assessment for sensing remote study on land following seasons. The study aims to better understand the associated issues with fallow land seasonality to examine the two systems of Rabi and Kharif that follow the distinct domain resources. The specific management of crop, soil, and water is for agricultural approaches in intensification regions. The resources are for the crop production in the sector of food-producing under ecological resilience and climates. The related factors with the technologies cover fertilizers, seeds, and technologies of water.          

Resource management

The homogenous unit of land has similar constraints that require the specific use of the land to progress the agro ecological and agro climatic zones of the sub-regions. The potential opportunity enhances the growth of food in central and eastern India. The region of central plateau such as Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh total land acreage that fallow remains during the season of Kharif are about to be 3.5 Mha. The fallows of the Rabi season are reported to vary between 4.5 to 5.5 Mha. Research institutions’ early goal set by fallow land that locates in Semi-Arid Tropics (SAT) the deficits institutional understand the associated problem that follows land. The important factor that determines crop success is irrigation proper availability. The requirement of water for maize Rabi is about 450 to 600 mm and the requirement of Kharif crop is about 400 to 450mm. The factors that are related to the resources are such as soil fertility, rainfall, and covering irrigation for the crop diversification patterns.       

Land management

The land management unit is characterized by the domains of resource management and the approach integrates the conservation concern of productivity. The enhanced productivity is sustained based on a high-input system of rice-wheat of Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) that shows the diversification and resource fatigue signs of overdue long production. Central India is two groups dominated by soils, sandy soil, and loamy soil. Summer crop or Zaid crop is diverting the rice areas 50% to vegetables, oilseeds, pulses, and fruit. The Indian perspective of crop diversification is to the advent of modern technology during the Green Revolution. Zaid crops are grown in sandy-loam soil and the cultivars’ duration is shortly done depending upon the irrigation facilities and availability. The suitable soil for Rabi crops ranges from desert soil to clay-heavy soil that is drained well. The capacity of holding water is a moderator that fertilizes the loam clay soils and ideally for wheat irrigating.        


The study concludes mainly the Indian cropping seasons, the Rabi seeds beginning sowing either December or November, and autumn beginning. The times of harvesting of the Rabi crops are between June to July such as mustard, wheat, and peas. The seeds of Kharif crops sowing begin during the rainy seasons in July and the time of harvesting between September to October such as bajra, maize, and rice. The Zaid crops grow shortly between Rabi and Kharif crops between Marchs to July and grow on the lands that are irrigated such as Bitter Gourd, cucumber, and pumpkin.