The Indian Subcontinent: Position, Extent and Physical Features-Climatic Diversity in the Indian Subcontinent

The Indian Subcontinent: Position, Extent and Physical Features-Climatic Diversity in the Indian Subcontinent

The climate of the Indian subcontinent is influenced by the geography and geology of the country. Furthermore, the diverse climate of India consists of a huge range of weather conditions.

The study introduces the diverse climate conditions belonging to the Indian subcontinent. Along with this, the diverse topography of India consists of different weather conditions regarding the climate of the country. Furthermore, the country contains six different climates that range from alpine tundra, humid tropical and island territories. 

Climatic Diversity in the Indian Subcontinent

  • Physical Features
  • Reversal of Winds

The climate of the country is based on the factors of winds as it changes its direction according to the season. Along with this, the direction of the wind during the winter season is from land to sea as northeast to southwest. According to a survey, 27% of participants from India believe that the climate is changing due to human-causes and 26% of the participants believe that climate change is derived due to natural causes. However, the direction of the wind is reversed during the summer season as it blows from sea to land. In this regard, the direction of the wind is towards the northeast from the southwest. 

Development of Low and High-Pressure Area

The wind pressure also plays a major role in the climate of India. Furthermore, the northern part of the country formed a high-pressure area due to low temperatures in the winter season. Along with this, the northwest of the country derives low-pressure areas due to high temperatures in the summer season. As per the data gathered in a survey the average temperature in India in 2020 is recorded to be 25.78 degrees Celsius. In this context, the above-mentioned factors are liable for the offshore and dry winds in the winter season in the country. Moreover, the onshore and wet wind blows in the summer season in the country. 

Multiple Seasons

The climate of India consists of multiple seasons and it derives their impact on its variation. Furthermore, the three main seasons of India affect the climate in a specific way. In this regard, in an aspect of temperature during 2019, the climate of India was derived as above the average. Along with this, the difference of season enables specific changes to the nature of the climatic condition of the country. Moreover, the mean temperature of India on an annual basis is derived at +0.36°C during 2019. 

Natural Calamities

The natural disaster also derives its role in the climate of the country. Moreover, the rainfall can differ within the different regions of the country and it can influence the climate within the county. Along with this, heavy rainfall enables the flood situation however; the low rainfall enables the drought situation in the country. On the other hand, the recorded annual rainfall of the country is 1,284 millimeters however; it slightly increased from the rainfall of 2018 that was recorded at 1,020 millimeters. 

Tropical Wet

The above-mentioned climate of India consists of the regions that derive high and warm temperatures and the temperature in this region is always above 18 °C. Along with this, the Malabar Coast and the Western Ghats belong to southwestern lowlands consisting of the humid and tropical wet climate. Moreover, the two individual Island tertiary of the country are also covered by the mentioned climate. 

Tropical Dry

The loss of moisture through evaporation enabled by the precipitation is derived in the mentioned climatic condition. Along with this, the mentioned climate is derived in the region consisting of the south to the tropic of cancer and east of the Western Ghats. 

Subtropical humid

Humid summers, mild summers and hot climates are the significance of these climates zones within the workplace that are mainly found in eastern area of the continent. Along with this, it is predicted that this occurs due to the “moist maritime air” within the different places of the workplace.  


The montane climates are other important climates zones within the environment that affect the livelihood of surroundings. In contrast, this climate occurs due to the high speed of winds as well as colder elevation in mountainous areas. Along with this climates range it harms the growth of trees in different segments.

Mountainous climate

Mountainous climate is mainly found in hilly areas of the country that harms the livelihood in different conditions within the workplace. Furthermore, in this sequence it is observed that this is cauterized with “extreme cold winters” and “cold summers” within the environment.

Semi Arid climate

“Semi Arid climate” is another important climate of Indian cultures that is influenced because of the high temperature of the environment within the surroundings. Furthermore, it is observed that this climate is found in “Rajasthan”, “Maharashtra” as well as in “Gujarat”.

Arid or Desert climate

“Arid or Desert climate” occurs due to the excess of high temperature within the desert are of the country. Along with this, it is observed that in this climate range there is approximately 9 cm rainfall within the surroundings.


The study concludes the overall aspect of the diverse climate in India. Along with this, the physical features consisting of the climatic changes are also derived. Moreover, the ranging climate belongs to the west of the country that is desert and glaciers are from the north. On the other hand, the southwest consists of a humid climate that enables support to rainforests and the territories belonging to the island.