The Indian Subcontinent: Position, Extent and Physical Features-Soil Resources of the Indian Subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent consists of diverse regions and of different types of soil that contain individual capabilities. Moreover, the soil in India can be derived from factors enabled by humans.
The current study sheds light on the soil as an individual resource of India. Along with this, the importance of soil as a specific resource consisting of the Indian subcontinent is also derived. Furthermore, the types of soil and their availability in the diverse regions of the country are effectively derived. On the other hand, the specialty of different soils along with their position and their extent is mentioned as per the physical presence at diverse places.
Soil Resources of the Indian Subcontinent
The soils are formed by the aspects of climate, wind and water that break down the rocks into smaller pieces. Furthermore, the diverse climates of the country play an important role in the formation of soil. Along with this, the rocks are different as per the physical demography of India and soils are also dependent on it. In this context, the Himalayas are situated in the north of the country and the soil of the north is rocky. Moreover, tropical forests exist in the southwest of the country therefore muddy soil is present in this region due to the humid climate. On the other hand, the soil from the west of the country is sandy due to the availability of desert in this direction of the country. Furthermore, the soil of the eastern side is considered the most fertile soil across the country. The presence of plain land lies around the Brahmaputra valley; the plain is developed by the alluvium derived by the rivers such as Ganga, Brahmaputra and Indus. In this regard, the soil belonging to this region is fertile and adequate for agriculture.
The soil resources of the Indian subcontinent are divided into different varieties having specific characteristics.
The above-mentioned soil of the country is formed by the silt carried by the different rivers such as Ganga and Brahmaputra. Moreover, this soil consists of a high proportion of potash and the efficiency of phosphorus. Along with this, it is considered fertile soil and effective for agriculture. On the other hand, the soil is able to enhance the productivity of rice, wheat, cotton and sugarcane.
The black soil is rich in calcium, iron and potash while it lacks the proportion of nitrogen. Furthermore, it is formed by the decrement of volcanic rocks and its core characteristic is that it gets cracked when it gets dried. On the other hand, this soil is effective for the crop of “sugarcane, Cotton, Oilseeds” as well as Tobacco.
Red and Yellow Soil
The Red and Yellow soil consists of a high proportion of iron and has the efficiency of calcium and phosphorus. Moreover, this soil is formed by the decomposition of metamorphic rocks and granite due to the climate and weather of the country. Furthermore, this soil is not able to hold the water for a long time and it becomes more fertile after adding fertilizer to it. On the other hand, the crops of pulse, Maize and Bajra can grow effectively in the mentioned soil.
The laterite soil contains a high proportion of iron and lacks the proportion of calcium as well as nitrogen. Along with this, the leaching process of the laterite rocks is able to form this soil. Moreover, this soil is not adequate for agriculture and it is mainly used in the manufacture of bricks that are further used in the construction work. On the other hand, the crops of Cashew, Coffee and rubber are effectively grown in the mentioned soil.
The forest soil contains a high proportion of humus and it lacks potash as well as phosphorus. Furthermore, this soil is formed by the decomposition process of organic matter. Along with this, it is adequate for crops such as spices, coffee and fruits.
The saline soil is formed with the help of the accumulating process of the soluble salt. Moreover, it contains a high proportion of chloride, magnesium and calcium. Along with this, the soil is considered unproductive while it is beneficial for the crops such as Dhaincha and Berseem. Furthermore, this soil is mainly found in certain parts of Bihar, Haryana, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh.
Different soil resources belong to the Indian continent found across the diverse region. Furthermore, the Alluvial soil is generally found in the regions of Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and certain places of Madhya Pradesh as well as West Bengal. Along with this, the distribution of the Black soil resource within the country is divided among Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. On the other hand, the Laterite soil is generally found in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and the Odisha region of the country. Along with this, the forest soil resources that are effective for the crops of spices and tea are available in the Himalayan region of the country.
The study concludes the overall availability of the diverse soil resources in the country. Along with this, the soil plays an important role while deriving their individual characteristics. Moreover, the diverse soil contains different qualities and derives its specific abilities for different crops.