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Quantitative Data Collection Methods

Quantitative Data Collection Methods

This article is on Quantitative Data Collection Methods. Quantitative data is a collection of statistically significant numerical data.

There are multiple ways to classify research methods, most of which fall into the qualitative or quantitative area.

Quantitative research demonstrates data in a digital format that enables researchers to examine and understand that data via statistical analysis and it is based on mathematical calculation. Customary examples consist of interviews, surveys, and case studies/document reviews. Generally speaking, quantitative data shows us what respondents’ choices were, and qualitative data shows us why they made those alternatives.

Once you’ve determined what kind of research you seek to do, it’s time to choose a data collection technique. Although quantitative and qualitative collection methods mostly imbricate, this article focuses on quantitative data collection methods.

What is Quantitative Data?

Quantitative research consists of collecting numerical data using closed-rounded or multiple-choice questions. The data collection used by researchers may vary; however, choosing a proper method to collect quantitative data is critical. The questions demanded should be unbiased and understandable for the public to collect and review the data received.

Quantitative data analysis comprises two types of statistical analysis: illustrative and derivable. Being able to infer data as a whole is descriptive statistical analysis. On the other contrary, emphasising the statistical significance of differences between two or more sets of data is inferential statistical analysis.

Quantitative Data Collection Method

Conducting surveys is the most common method of collecting quantitative data. Unlike qualitative surveys, where participants answer open-ended questions and can share as much detail as needed, closed-ended surveys require respondents to answer yes or no and/or multiple-choice questions. These surveys may also collect demographic information such as age, gender, income or occupation.

Another type of closed survey question might ask respondents to rate something on a scale, such as by making a statement and asking respondents whether they strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree. Participants can respond to the survey online or by email.

Observation

In observational research methods, the researcher observes the audience as an observer, participant, observer as participant, or participant as observer. This is a simple method of data collection that requires the researcher’s undivided attention to the environment.

The researcher visually collects quantitative data based on his detailed observations. The observational research method also has the advantage that there are no uncomfortable situations when respondents do not want to participate.

Structured observation: In this observation method, the researcher focuses on a specific area of   interest. Structured observation aims to correctly estimate a certain behaviour or attitude of the audience.

Existing Data

Existing data is a method of gathering verifiable and measurable data from existing data. These recordings are readily available. Researchers can add new information to the data of existing documents.

Research journals and survey recording tools are used to analyse existing data and build new quantitative data.

Public Records: Annual policy reports, student activity reports, and other reports documenting ongoing assessments and cases are examples of public records.

Personal Best: Personal records include records of personal information about individuals. behaviours such as height, weight, and physique all fall into this category.

Physical Evidence: Physical evidence is a document held by an individual or organisation.

Probability

Random selection of members from a population sample is the basic idea of   probability. The researcher was able to make a statement based on the information provided by the target group. The data was collected randomly, which would destroy any possibility of bias.

The types of probabilistic research methods used to collect quantitative data are:

System sampling: In systematic sampling, typical members are selected at certain intervals. Researchers systematically select populations, such as every 5 or 10 people on the list.

Simple Random Sampling: Members of the population are chosen at random in the simple random sampling approach. Every member has the chance to be selected.

Stratified Sample: This sampling method allows researchers to divide the population into units to create a sample. For example, researchers can use stratified sampling to select a group of men or women in a model.

Interview

You can also collect quantitative data through interviews. Quantitative interviews are much more structured than qualitative interviews, in which the interviewer asks the interviewee a standard set of closed-ended questions that do not allow answers to provide detailed context.

Interviews can be face-to-face meetings, or interviewers can communicate with participants over the phone or online. Completing a quantitative interview is similar to completing a closed-loop survey, only the communication is verbal.

Correlation and Regression Method

The most common techniques for studying the relationship between two quantitative variables are correlation and linear regression. Correlation quantifies the strength of a linear relationship between a pair of variables, while regression expresses this relationship in the form of an equation. For example, in emergency room (ED) patients, we can use correlations and regressions to determine whether there is a relationship between age and urea levels, and whether urea levels can be predicted for a given age.

Conclusion

Quantitative data is not about convergent reasoning, it is about divergent thinking. It is based on mathematical calculations, it deals with numbers, logic and objective positions, with an emphasis on numbers and immutable data. Typically, data collection methods are used to collect quantitative research data and the results depend on a larger sample that is usually representative of the population the researcher intends to study.

While there are many other methods of collecting quantitative data, the most common and widely used methods, whether offline or online data collection, are the above-mentioned probability sampling, interviews, questionnaire observations, and document reviews.