The article will guide you to learn about Indian polity and the constitution.

The word Panchayat stands for assembly of five and Raj means “rule”. Panchayati Raj is the Indian subcontinent’s oldest form of local government. However, through the 73rd Amendment Act in 1992, it was actually inaugurated by the Indian Constitution as level 3 of India’s federal democracy. It was developed through federal democracy through the 73rd amendment act. Panchayats are a part of the Indian polity and constitution. 

The Panchayats receives funds from;

Local body grunts

Funds from centrally sponsored schemes 

Funds were released by the state government on the recommendation of the state finance commission.

Levels of Panchayati Raj institution

The three-tier system of Panchayati Raj consists of

District level panchayat

Block-level panchayat

Village level panchayat

Key features of the Panchayat Raj system: 

Gram Sabha is the smallest and only permanent unit in the panchayat Raj system according to Indian polity and constitution. 

Therefore, seats are reserved for scheduled caste, scheduled tribe, and as well as for women. 

Elections are conducted in every five years.

Panchayats have their own responsibilities to ensure people’s safety, economic development. 

Gram panchayat

Gram panchayat is a local body working for the welfare of the village. Every five years, elections are conducted to choose their own panchayat Pradhan. In this system, villagers are allowed to speak about their demands or problems in front of the governance. But the decisions are taken without long legal procedure. 


Meet the economic needs of people 

Providing a proper educational system

Establishing a good way to reach health care needs and sanitization 

Also, the welfare of society to each and every aspect.

Providing a proper drainage system and supply of water or making a good source of water for the daily household also for drinking. 

Sources of income

The tax collected by the local people for water, market, mandir, shop, etc. 

Fixed grunt from the state government 


Block panchayat

The block-level institution is called a Panchayat Samiti. This is a local government system in taluk mostly. The Samiti is elected for 5 years and is headed by the chairman and deputy chairman. The common departments in the samiti are General Administration, public works, agriculture, health, education, social welfare, information technology, and others. This is the intermediate level in the panchayat Raj institution. 


  • Finance
  • Public work
  • Information technology 
  • Water supply
  • Social welfare 
  • Education 
  • Agriculture 
  • Health 
  • General administration 


Implementation of scheme for the development of agriculture and infrastructure 

Establishment of basic education 

Supply of water

Providing health facilities 

Development of industry 

District level panchayat

 The district-level panchayat is known as the district council or Zilla Parishad. This is the third tier of the Panchayati raj system. The chief officer is an IAS grade officer. 


Deputy Commissioner 

President of panchayat samiti

Head of all government departments 

M.P. And M.L.A. 

Women society and schedule cast members 


Agriculture services for the welfare of society 

Education system development among people, libraries establishment

Health sector modification to promote health safety and comfort to emergencies, vaccination against several diseases to prevent demotion of health issues

Construction development for the purpose of good living, transportation, connectivity 

Provide employment to reduce the facts of living difficulties 

Execute the plans for the development of scheduled caste and tribes.

Women’s welfare and social well-being and provide women safety. Development of women education, work opportunities 

Encourage entrepreneurs to start small businesses 

Providing good sanitation and drainage systems to the people. 

Role of women in the Panchayati raj system 

The main purpose of these systems is to bring women into the mainstream of development.

The constitutional Amendment act, 1992 provides for reservation of selective posts for women.

Information unit 

No of villages in India: 662163

No of blocks in India: 7213

No of districts in India: 740 

(This report is based on the census of 26/02/2022;

Ps: this data is updated by the state departments local government directory).


With the evolution of the democratic process, the establishment of the Panchayat Raj system has enhanced substantial thrust to the course of decentralization and has a greater implication on India’s governance system. The study gives us an overview of Indian polity and the constitution. This concept is occasionally laced with a political agenda for statistics and economic reasons. The expression connects an assembly of five elderly leaders elected by the local community. Panchayati raj signifies democratic decentralization at the grass-root level. The effectiveness of these bodies can be achieved by the working system of local government to the welfare of Grass root people.