In this article, we shall discuss what is microscope, its significance, and its uses in the field of science. Further, we will also throw light upon the types of microscopes.

In the field of microscopy, microscopes are used to magnify tiny specimens. Scientists can view the nucleus, mitochondria, and other organelles of a cell using certain microscopes that can examine an item down to the cellular level. Despite the modern microscope’s numerous components, its lenses are its most crucial. Using the microscope’s lenses, an object’s image may be enlarged and examined in greater detail. Using a convex lens, a basic light microscope manipulates how light reaches the eye by bending both sides outward. As the microscope lens focuses light on an item beneath the microscope, it bends toward the observer’s eye. Thus, it seems larger than it really is.

History and Evolution of Microscope

Technological advances have made microscopes simpler to operate and the pictures they create better throughout the course of their history. Zacharias and Hans Jansen, two Dutch spectacle-makers, devised the compound microscope in 1590. One of the pioneers of the microscope, Antoine Van Leeuwenhoek, was another Dutchman. For his microscopes, Leeuwenhoek used a metal frame that was attached to a tiny glass ball. “Animalcules” were the microorganisms he studied with his microscopes, which were single-celled, freshwater species.

Lens Used for Experimentation

Modern microscopes employ many lenses to expand a picture, while previous microscopes used just one lens. Both the compound microscope and the dissecting microscope have two sets of lenses (also called the stereo microscope). Objective and eyepiece lenses are included in both of these microscopes. The objective lens’ magnification might be as high as 10 times greater than that of the eyepiece lens. There may be as many as four objective lenses of varying magnifications in a compound microscope. 

Usage of Compound Microscope

The compound microscope can be adapted to fit the demands of the viewer. Multiplying the magnifications of the eyepiece and the objective lens utilized determines the overall magnification of a particular combination of lenses. One hundred times bigger is what an item would seem to be if the eyepiece and objective lens both magnify it 10 times.

Types of Microscope

Light Microscope

Light microscopes are the most common kind of microscope used by students. When using a light microscope, the specimen (the biological material you are seeing) is illuminated with visible light, which is bent by the lens system to produce a magnified picture. Light microscopy has the advantage of being able to be done on live cells, allowing scientists to see cells as they go about their daily activities (such as migrating or dividing) under the light of the microscope.

Electron Microscope

High-resolution pictures can be produced using several cutting-edge light microscopy methods. However, electron microscopy is a tried-and-true method for seeing very small objects at extremely high resolution.

Simple Microscope

The magnification of a sample in a simple microscope is accomplished by the employment of a single lens. In order to acquire the smallest distance of distinct vision from the eye that is held at the lens to a virtual, upright, and enlarged picture, a basic microscope’s operating concept is to concentrate on a sample.

Compound Microscope

When a microscope contains more than one lens, it is referred to as a compound microscope. An objective lens and an eyepiece or ocular lens are the two optical components that make up this telescope.

Stereo Microscope

The sample’s reflected light powers a stereo microscope. The low-power magnification of a microscope makes it ideal for magnifying opaque items.

Uses and Applications of Microscope

For a range of scientific applications, the microscope is an essential piece of equipment. A microscope is a must-have for anybody working in the fields of forensics or traditional medicine. Take a look at some of the most common uses of microscope.

Analysis of the Cellular Components

Histologists often use microscopes to examine cells and tissues. As an example, histologists may use a microscope and other technologies to detect whether a sample is malignant if it is collected for examination.

Inquiry into Forensics

Unobservable data may be included in the evidence gathered at the site of a crime. As an example, bullet striations may be inspected under a microscope to check whether they match rounds that were fired from a certain pistol.

Finding out how healthy an Ecosystem is

Field biologists often use microscopes to monitor the health of a specific environment, such as a stream, by identifying the quantity and variety of species over time.

Trying to discover the function of a protein in a Cellular System

One of the most prominent uses of microscope is to examine protein function in cells is an important tool for researchers. Many proteins can now be tagged with a tag and examined in live cells thanks to recent technological advancements.

Analysing the atomic framework

Scientists have been able to examine the surfaces of individual atoms with the use of powerful microscopes like atomic force microscopes.

Interesting Facts About Microscope

Eyepiece and objective lens powers are multiplied to obtain a light microscope’s magnification capability.

One of the most common light microscopes is the stereomicroscope. Low-power or dissecting microscopes are examples of stereo. Composite microscopes are biological or high-powered ones.

For macro specimens that can be seen with the naked eye, stereo microscopes are the best option (insects, crystals, PCB, etc). compounds are useful in seeing cells that are not visible to the naked eye (on microscope slides).

It is possible to create a digital microscope by simply attaching a digital microscope camera to an existing microscope and keeping the microscope’s functionality intact.

Using a digital microscope camera, the resolution of your computer display is restricted. High-resolution images (usually 3MP or more) may be a waste of time.


In summary, a microscope is a device that employs a lens or a group of lenses to magnify an object’s size. They also aid in the observation of many creatures. In addition, a microscope’s illumination aids in the observation of microorganisms. Microscopes come in a variety of shapes and sizes, each with a specific purpose. The many types of microscopes are categorized based on the scanning and/or viewing technology they use. Microscopy may be broken down into many subcategories based on the kind of microscope used. They’re put to various uses in many disciplines. Tissue analysis, forensic evidence evaluation, ecosystem health determination, protein involvement in cell research, and atomic structure study are some of their applications.