Mediaeval India-Sultanate Period

Mediaeval India-Sultanate Period

The time between 1206 to 1526 is known as the Delhi sultanate period; the rulers of this period ruled from their capital Delhi. This period has such significant movements which have helped the rulers to create their impact.

In Indian history, there are so many powerful dynasties and rulers who left their impact on Indian history. The Sultans of this time are also one of those powerful rulers who have ruled differently in their own ways. The administration process of the Delhi sultanate has such fascinating ways which they have followed. There were such personalities who have demonstrated their power of dominance with individual leadership. It has been seen that in Indian history the effects of such powerful Islam persons have created such unforgettable scenarios which still glitter in every history book of India. In this document, there are such brief descriptions of the level of Sultanate dynasties and their impacts on Indian politics.


The Delhi sultanate has five main dynasties that maintained the dominance years after the years the main and the major dynasties of Delhi Sultanate were 

  • Mamluk Dynasty 
  • Khilji Dynasty
  • Tughlaq Dynasty
  • Sayyid Dynasty
  •  Lodi Dynasty

The above-mentioned dynasties have ruled the territory with their own ideology which has both positive and negative aspects.

History of India from Medieval India-Sultanate Period

The Mamluk Dynasty ruled from the 1206 to 1290 century, which has a background of slavery. The mentioned dynasty is also known as the slaves of the rulers of that time. The historical information says that the Mamluks were the soldiers who converted themselves to Islam. Gradually the mamluks turned into an aggressive military creed which became the most powerful military in several Muslim communities. This dynasty has also demonstrated its dominative power with the capabilities of dealing with the enemies. It has been seen that the first sultan of the Mamluk dynasty was Qutbuddin Aibak. 

Tughlaq Dynasty establishment

During the time of defending the empire from the attacks of Mongolia, the Khiljies have demonstrated their power of both defence and attack. The attacking index of the Mongolians gets stuck by the powerful human pillars of the Khilji Sultanates. 

The next dynasty was the Tughlaq Dynasty established by “Firuz Shah Tughlaq ”; this dynasty expanded its lineage through military campaigns. By the time of ending the era of “Khiljies” the next lineage of the Tughlaq Dynasty has faced the aggression of the past that was on Khilgies. The Tughlaqs felt the aggression of the enemies. There were much personnel who has fought for the nation to retain the kingdom. Many of them were wiped out by the enemies here the mentioned dynasty has applied critical planning so that any outer power cannot dominate them. As a result of critical politics, the Thuglaqs moved their planning and they started expanding their territory

As per the historical information that has been gathered, it describes that “The Khalji Dynasty” ruled Delhi before the time of 1320 in history. They were the last ruler who rolled Delhi with such animalistic rule. Khushro khan who was known as a Hindu slave served tughlaq dynasty as the army chief for the time. Khushro khan and Mallik Kafur and their joined alley have performed multiple military campaigns through which Alauddin Khalji gathered the powers gradually to rule more and expand the Muslim kingdom.

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq took the power of the place and became another powerful character. The person awarded the Mallik people who helped him to get the throne. However, the war continued from the Tughlaq dynasty with the intention of gathering as much land as possible. the war and has executed numerous people and became one of the most aggressive Sultan rulers of the

 with the help of the military campaigns. It has been seen that in history there was such huge dominance of militaries. It has also been noticed that the armies of several kings have killed normal peoples out of aggression. The same thing happened at the time of the Tughlaq era, they started dwelling with each and every medium army who protected the normal people to save their lives. Due to the lustfulness of extending territory, the kings of the mentioned time have snatched innocent life. At that time there were footsteps of politics everywhere that can be seen and observed for looking back on the time.

The Sayyid Dynasty was the next lineage after the Tughlaqs who had also ruled north India with their own kinds of manipulative planning. This particular dynasty has captured Delhi after the year 1398. It has been seen that there are quite the same characteristics of each and every ruler of the mentioned time The last dynasty was the Lodi Dynasty which ruled the throne from 1451-to 1526 the Lodi Dynasty is also known as the Afghan dynasty. The Afghans are also known for their war and the political strategies that they followed to gather the places and the powers. The Lodi Dynasty was established by Bahlul Khan Lodi. Bahlul Khan Lodi is also known as the son-in-law of Malik Sultan Shah Lodi. Person Muhammad Sha raised Bahlul khan with the status of “Tarun Bin Sultan” this person is also known for his aggressiveness in Punjab. Bahlul Khan Lodi ascended the Delhi sultanate throne on 19th April 1451 with power and aggressiveness. The quest of Jaunpur seemed the most important for the sultan. Bahlul Khan Lodi has fought against the Sharqi dynasty with the result of finally joining them in politics. 


The article described the condition of India in the Medieval India-Sultanate period. Delhi can be considered as the centre of India from where all the powerful rulers ruled the country, India.  Mamluks were one of the earliest rulers of India who ruled the country by making Delhi the centre which helped him to rule the country peacefully and efficiently. The role of Alauddin khilji in the historical context of the country India is perfectly mentioned throughout the article.