Mediaeval India-Mughal Period

 Mediaeval India-Mughal Period

Panipat's first battle (1526) was the start of the Mughal Era and this structure is associated with the start of the history of mediaeval India that lasted long through the Sepoy mutiny (1857).

Mughals are the great lineage rulers of mediaeval India and the Panipat’s first battle of Babar v/s Ibrahim Lodi was the start of the Mughal era in India. Babar is the founder of the Mughal dynasty and he came from Ferghana. From Babar to Aurangzeb the Mughal’s strength was significant within the mediaeval Indian subcontinent and after that, its strength was declining with the grasp of British rule as well. In 1555 the era of Humayun is also a reflection of the significant Mughal ruling in Medieval India. Bahadur Shah II was the last Mughal ruler (1857) and he was the witness of the first war of Independence of India (1857, sepoy mutiny).

History of Mughal dynasty 

Indian mediaeval history was always associated with the start of the “Mughal” dynasty and Babar established the Mughal dynasty after defeating Ibrahim Lodi in the war of the first Panipat (1526). Several wars were associated with Babar and that helped to structure the Mughal dynasty stronger. After Babar, one of his sons, Humayun took the responsibility of the Mughal throne, and in between Sher-shah Suri snatched the throne of Delhi. After some years in 1555, Humayun again established the Mughal dynasty with more strength. After Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shajahan, and lastly Aurangzeb carried on the tenure of the Mughal dynasty and its significant glory. Akbar and Aurangzeb served most of the period of the Mughal regime in mediaeval India. From literature, artistry, architecture, illustration is established within this time. After Aurangzeb, no Mughal king became successful in terms of the prevalent lordship of British Rule. At last, in 1857 Sepoy mutiny was capable of concluding the Mughal era.

Important incidents of the mediaeval India-Mughal period

One of the world’s wonders, Taj Mahal was constructed in the Mughal era. Shahjahan had given the order to build this architect in the loving memory of his wife Mumtaz. The golden age of the Mughal era was considered during his reign.

Akbar was the most popular ruler among all the Mughal kings due to his considerate nature for his countrymen. During his time, Akbar focused on the expansion of his ruling territory by different means such as war and mutual agreement. He also helped in the rejection of inconvenient tax systems. 

Babar is the main founder of the Mughal era and his life history and ruling details are structured within a book called, “Babar Nama”, where his war tactics and beliefs in the strength and prestigious issue than religious interference was written in a concise manner

Mediaeval India and its development are based on the establishment of the Mughal era in India and even the interference of the other dynasty (Suri dynasty) never restricted the authority of the development process of Mughal within India. 

Jahangir is known as the father of royal justice among all Mughal rulers and he was very passionate about the paintings. His court got glory by the presence of some renowned painters at that time. The British East India company got permission to trade in India during his ruling period.

Among all Mughals, Aurangzeb was known for his lack of tolerance for other religions except for the islamic religion and practices, for which he was known as Zinda Pir. He succeeded the Mughal throne by killing his own brother, which is a significant incident in Indian history. After his reign, the British were able to conquer the Indian ruling system, which indicated the significant end of mediaeval India.

The decline of the Mughal Dynasty

In the year 1857, sepoy mutiny occurred against the Mughal ruling in the light of ending the Mughal period in India, which is the major incident in mediaeval India. The East-India company utilised this turmoil of Indian leadership to establish the colony by helping the challenging party against Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II, who was deported to Rangoon after defeat. However, after the death of Aurangzeb most of the researchers said that due to Shah Jahan’s wasteful expenditure, wars or revolts were not controlled by the later Mughal emperors in mediaeval India due to their licentious life. The mutiny resulted in the dip of the Indian economy and presented the weakened administrative situation of Mughal rulers in Delhi. The indulgence of the British East India Company in the power struggle during this situation resulted in becoming the puppets for the British. Additionally, some other important causes for the decline of the Mughals in mediaeval India are,

Land relation and its deterioration process

  • The noble selfish struggle at the court
  • Lack of modern weapons and fewer initiatives for the structure of the system 
  • Regional emergence and the increase of successor states power


The discussion showed the history of the Mughal dynasty and their initiative to make a stronger economic or political condition in mediaeval India is structured here. Babar established the Mughal Empire in 1526 and this dynasty was destroyed in 1857, during the Sepoy Mutiny. There are different important incidents that happened during the Mughal era and most of them have a different historical importance, from the establishment of Tajmahal and the first British occurrence in the era of Jahangir is critically discussed in this assignment.