Geography of the Indian Subcontinent–Pakistan

Geography of the Indian Subcontinent–Pakistan

The Indian subcontinent is divided into three parts Pakistan, India and Bangladesh. Let us discover the details of subcontinent Pakistan, its culture, people, religion and languages.

The Indian subcontinent is a “physiographic region” in the part of South Asia. It is a path of Indian plate that is situated into the “Indian Ocean from the Himalayas”. Generally, this part includes the countries such as India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Maldives. The Indian subcontinent is a very vast area that is separated into three countries such as Pakistan, India and Bangladesh. This study is focused on the “Geography of the Indian subcontinent Pakistan” and raises questions such as the Physical, political and industrial Geography of the Indian subcontinent Pakistan. There are mainly three parts in the geography of such as physical, political and industrial. 

What is the Physical Geography of the Indian subcontinent Pakistan?

Pakistan is part of the greater Indian subcontinent that is situated between the “Middle East and Asia”. The total area of Pakistan is “307,372 Square Miles”. The physical geography of the Indian subcontinent Pakistan has five distinct regions. These include the “Thar desert and lower Indus valley”, “the Balochistan plateau”, “the Indus valley”, “the northeast Frontier region”, “The Far North region”. All these regions are very specific to describe the physical part of the country. The desert region is situated in the southernmost province of Sind ”. It consists of two valleys: “arid valley and Rocky hills”. These two valleys are extended towards the neighbouring country of India. 

“The Balochistan plateau” lies between 1000 to 3000 feet above sea level in the western part of Balochistan. This part is filled with rugged mountains and it surrounds half of the territory. The Indus valley is the largest site of irrigation in the world. Punjab is the name of this place which is located in the basin of five water. The amalgamation of these five rivers is “Indus”, “Chenab”, “Jhelum”, “Ravi and Sutlej”. This province is situated on the northern side of Pakistan

The North-East Frontier of Pakistan is a place of the barren mountain that is enriched with irrigated valleys. Peshawar is part of the provincial capital that is extended through the Khyber Pass. In the far North side of Pakistan, there are towering mountains, deep narrow valleys and glaciers. “K2 is the world’s second-highest mountain” is also situated in Pakistan. In this place, there are dozens of peaks that are 25000 feet in elevation. The important peaks are such as “Naga Parbat”, “Gasherbrum”, and “Rakaposhi”

What is the Political Geography of  Pakistan?

The political geography of the Indian subcontinent Pakistan has some distinct regions that are Sindh, Balochistan, North-West frontier, Punjab, Northern areas, Azad Kashmir and tribal areas. The country serves as the boundary with four neighbouring countries whereas it serves its major boundary with Afghanistan that is 24030 kilometres. 

Discussion about the industrial Geography of the Pakistan 

The industrial geography of Pakistan is enriched with natural resources and industrial materials. All these resources are such as water resources, fuel resources, agriculture, forestry, mining, and fishery, manufacturing. The renewable resource used in Pakistan is hydrological power to develop electricity from water energy. From the river Sutlej Ravi and Beas, the water is used for producing electricity. Indus is the largest river in Pakistan also used for the production of hydroelectric power. Here this study focused on the mining, Fuel and manufacturing industry. 

Mining industry 

Pakistan has an imminence reserve of various minerals and natural sources. The important sources of minerals in Pakistan are “gypsum, limestone, chromites, iron ore, rock salt, and silver, gold”.  Some precious stones are also available in Pakistan such as gems, marble, copper, coal, graphite, sulphur, fire clay, silica. The Punjab provinces have one of the largest deposits of salt rage in the world. Baluchistan’s Reko Diq area is renowned for Major reserves of copper and gold.  

Fuel industry

 The oil industry in Pakistan was discovered in the year of late 1952 in Balochistan. The tool oil field of Pakistan was discovered in the year of early 1960s Islamabad in the Punjab. Pakistan’s first gas field was the “giant gas” field at Sui in Balochistan. Pakistan is also the producer of “Bituminous coal”, “Sub-bituminous coal” and “Lignite”. 

Manufacturing Sectors 

 The dominating manufacturing sector in Pakistan is “textiles, Coke Petroleum, Pharmaceuticals, Foods and beverages, and tobacco”. This sector is divided into three parts such as “Large Scale Manufacturing” (LSM), “Small Scale Manufacturing” (SSM), and “slaughtering”. The LSM share 9.73% of GDP in the overall manufacturing sector and SMEs share 2.12% of total GDP in Pakistan.. 


 It can be concluded that the Indian subcontinent Pakistan has a wide range of variations in the geographical sector. The geographical sector of Pakistan has three distinct components such as physical, political and industrial that play a significant role in the country. There is a wide range of variation observed in the physical part of Pakistan. The Thar Desert, the Indus valley, Balochistan plateau, northeast Frontier and Far north regions are enriched with a wide range of natural distributions that are observed in the country. The five rivers such as “Indus”, “Chenab”, “Jhelum”, “Ravi and Sutlej” have also enriched the civilisation of the country. On the other hand, the second largest peak of the world, K2 is situated in the country that provides a special attraction in the physical part of Pakistan. The climatic variations are seen in different parts of the country ranging from north to south. Industrial resources are the key changer of the development of the country.