Geography of the Indian Subcontinent-India

 Geography of the Indian Subcontinent-India

The geography of the Indian subcontinent ensures the geographic features of India. The country is sized about 3.28 million square kilometres with a mammoth 1400 million population.

The study reflects on the geographic features of the Indian subcontinent where the entire geography of the Indian subcontinent will be discussed. The purpose of the study is to explore the physical features of the Indian subcontinent. It will determine the soil resources of India. However, the agriculture of the Indian subcontinent will also be a key area of discussion. The drainage system of a country is the consequence of a geographical period and the patterns of the drainage system of India will be explored in this study.  

Geography of the Indian subcontinent 

The Indian subcontinent appears to be 2 thousand miles long triangles and is hung from the landmass of Central Asia. The land is accessible through several north-west facing passes as it is bounded by the Himalayas on the north. The Bay of Bengal forms the eastern boundary whereas the Arabian Sea is the western one.  The subcontinent of India is divided into geographic segments. It shows that the northern region extends from the Indus river surrounded by the northwest lands to the river Ganges as surrounded by the northeastern region. The Punjab and Rajasthan hills fall in this region. However, the south and central area of the Vindhya mountain range is said to be the Deccan including forest zones, arid and high Deccan Plateaus, hills etc. The southern region is alienated by the Nilgiri Hills from the rest of the land.     

Physical features of India 

A range of mountains starts from the Pamir Knot that is situated just in the north of India. The Sulaiman, the Kirthar and the Hindukush lie in the east and the Himalayas lie in the west separating the Indian subcontinent from the rest of Asia. However, the Pir Panjal mountain range lies in the northern subcontinent of India and is a part of the middle Himalayas. In addition, the Indian subcontinent is divided into several physical divisions including The Great India Desert, The Great Mountain wall of the North, The Coastal plains, The Island Groups, The Great Peninsular Plateau etc. The Himalayas is considered to be the highest mountain wall of the world,. Anaimudi appears to be the highest peak of the peninsula and is situated in the Sahyadri range. The Great Indian Desert, on the other hand, is situated to the west of the Aravali range extending over a major part of Rajasthan. Lakshadweep and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands are a group of corals consisting of several islands.        

Soil resources of the Indian subcontinent 

Soil seems to be a resource of geographic importance, especially in agricultural countries like India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The majority of food items like fruits, pulses, vegetables, wheat, rice and clothing items are derived from the soil. The Indian Council of Agricultural research categorises Indian soils into several groups including Black soil, Red soil, Alkaline and Saline soil, Alluvial soil, Forest soil, Red oil, Desert and Arid soil etc. Alluvial soils are turned out to be the most important type of soil and are mostly found in the northern plains of the Indian subcontinent. Black soils originate from Volcanoes and are ideal for growing cotton. These types of soils are the most typical of the Deccan trap and further cover the plateaus of Malwa, Maharashtra and southern Madhya Pradesh.      

Agriculture of India 

India is rich in agriculture and produces agricultural and allied activities across the country. It has been found from the report that almost 60% of the total population of India are engaged in agricultural activities. India depends on several agricultural systems including Mixed Farming, Subsistence Farming, Extensive Farming, Plantation Agriculture etc. In all these farming processes, cultivation of crops is done simultaneously with the rearing of animals with a limited amount of capital and labour. However, there are three crop seasons in India incorporating Zayad suggesting the summer season for growing crops, Kharif starts in the monsoon growing millets, cotton, groundnuts, jute etc. whereas Rabi ensures pulses, barley, wheat while the harvesting is done after the rainy seasons.     

The drainage system of India

The drainage system of India is divided into two groups based on the discharge of water including the Bay of Bengal drainage and the Arabian sea drainage. The report says that almost 76% of the drainage system comprises the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Krishna, the Brahmaputra and are oriented towards the Bay of Bengal. However, 24% of the drainage system consists of the Narmada, the Indus, the Tapi, the Periyar and the Mahi and is discharged towards the Arabian sea. 


It can be concluded that India has a significant geographic feature across the country that ensures the viability of the geography of the Indian subcontinent. The extent of India starts from the range of mountains to the drainage systems. It has been encountered from the study that the soil produces agricultural products that help India grow rich. However, the types of agriculture ensure the rich production of rice, jute, cotton etc.