Photosynthesis is the process in which the plants use sunlight along with water and carbon dioxide to form oxygen and sugar as a form of energy.

In the process of photosynthesis, the plants use carbon dioxide (CO₂) in the formation of oxygen (O₂) with the help of water (H₂O) present in the air and soil. The plant cells present in them oxidize the water and make the water lose its electrons. The loss of the electrons in the water is gained by the carbon dioxide present in the pants. This makes the reaction between the plant’s cells and converts the water into oxygen by the available component of oxygen in the water (H₂O). Photosynthesis is the only method by which the plants use sources like sunlight and water to make the required material for their survival. 


In the whole process of photosynthesis, the development of the plants is based on the different parts of the plants which make the efforts in making the oxygen and the glucose for the plants. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make their foods with the help of sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water. The oxygen produced in the process of making food by the plants is released to the atmosphere which helps in increasing the oxygen level in the atmosphere. The whole process is carried out by the different parts of the plants, in the plants there are cells called chloroplasts. These chloroplasts help the plant store energy they get from the sunlight. 

The small pigments are there to absorb the sunlight within the membrane of the chloroplasts. The chlorophyll present in the leaves of the plants is the one responsible for the plant’s green color. During the process of photosynthesis, the chlorophyll present in the plants absorbs the blue and red waves from the sunlight and reflects the green wave due to which the leaves and the other part of the plant appear to be green in color. Although there are various processes in photosynthesis, the process can be divided into two major reactions. The reaction depends on the light and the reaction is independent of the light. 

In the light-dependent reaction, the light energy is changed into chemical energy in the form of molecules like ATP or NADPH. Whereas the reaction which is independent of light represents the Calvin cycle, which happens in the storm, present between the thylakoid and chloroplast membrane. In this reaction, the energy from the ATP or NADPH molecule is used as the molecule of carbohydrates resulting in glucose.

Types of Photosynthesis and Photosynthesis equations

There are two types of photosynthesis which are categories based on the process of producing oxygen and carbohydrates. These two types are Oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis, both processes follow the same principle in photosynthesis. 

Oxygenic photosynthesis

In Oxygenic photosynthesis, the energy from the lights transfers the electrons from the waters (H₂O) which are mainly absorbed by the roots of the plants.  The absorbed water is mixed with the carbon dioxide present in the cells of the plants. The mixtures make the carbon dioxide gain the electron which leads to being converted into carbohydrates and the water after losing electron changes into oxygen. Hence the oxygen is produced along with carbohydrates which changes into glucose. Oxygenic photosynthesis is usually very popular among the different plants as compared to anoxygenic photosynthesis. 

The equation of Oxygenic photosynthesis is- 

6(CO₂) + 12(H₂O) + Light Energy = C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6(O₂) + 6(H₂O)

Anoxygenic photosynthesis

In anoxygenic photosynthesis, the electrons are usually not extracted by the waters. In this process, electrons are donated by various bacteria in anoxygenic photosynthesis, which are green sulfur bacteria or purple phototrophic bacteria. 

The equation of anoxygenic photosynthesis is – 

CO₂ + 2(H₂A) + Light Energy = [CH₂O] + 2A +H₂O

Role of Oxygen and Carbon dioxide in Photosynthesis

The role of oxygen and carbon dioxide is very important in photosynthesis; the carbon dioxide is used to produce the carbohydrate for the plants. The carbohydrates are converted into glucose with the help of water. The absorption of carbon dioxide and the release of oxygen take place from the microscopic pores present in the leaves of the plants. These pores are called the stomata; they act like the gatekeepers in the process of photosynthesis to make the changes in the functioning of the plants. The stomata present in the leaves open to absorb the carbon dioxide from the surroundings. Once the process of photosynthesis is done then the stomata again open to release the oxygen in the surrounding. Along with the oxygen the water vapor formed in the plant during the reaction also escapes from the stomata.  


The overall process of photosynthesis is discussed in the content displaying the process by which the plants prepare their foods. The resources like sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide are used by the plants in preparing foods with the help of photosynthesis. The different parts of the plants play a different role in extracting water from the soils and surroundings. In this process the plants absorb the carbon dioxide from the surrounding and then release oxygen into the atmosphere. The different types of photosynthesis are seen in the plant to make their food.