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Fertilizer

Fertilizer

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Introduction

Indian soils have been exploited for agriculture for thousands of years, resulting in the depletion of soil fertility, which in turn has resulted in the soil’s poor productivity. The above-mentioned strategy is to employ manure and fertilisers to create soil that is capable of producing high crops. In India, high-yielding crops, fertilisers, and irrigation, along with technological advancements, have resulted in an extraordinary increase in agricultural productivity. Fertiliser usage serves as a gauge for agricultural success since increased fertiliser application accounts for 70% of the rise in agricultural productivity.

Advantages of Fertilisers

Crop Intensity and Multiple Cropping Programs Increase Farm Productivity. Only in the presence of fertilisers does the HYV of seeds perform better. If you have Deccan soil, you will need more P and K, which can only be obtained by fertiliser use. Fertilisers are the only way to provide the additional nitrogen required by alluvial soil. 

Consumption and Production

For fertiliser production, India ranks third after China and the United States. After China, India is the world’s second-largest user of fertiliser. All fertilisers (NPK) production grew from 1059 thousand tonnes in 1970-71 to 16092 thousand tonnes (more than a 15-fold increase in little over four decades) in 2013. As a whole, India uses 165 kg/ha of NPK in fertilisers, however this varies greatly from state to state. U.P. is the top user of fertilisers in the state (4207 thousand tonnes). Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra each use more than 3000 thousand tonnes of fertiliser each year. Chemical fertiliser use is lowest in North-Eastern India.

Fertilisers are divided into three groups:

Straight fertilisers: Straight fertilisers are those that provide just one major plant nutrient, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium, to the plants they are applied to. Useful fertilisers include urea, ammonium sulphate, potash chloride (Muriate of Potash-MOP), and potassium sulphate.

Complex fertilisers: Complex fertilisers are composed of two or three major plant nutrients, with two or three of the primary plant nutrients being combined chemically. Most of the time, these fertilisers are generated in granular form. For example, Diammonium Phosphate (DAP), Nitro Phosphates, and Ammonium Phosphate are all types of phosphates (NPK).

Mixed fertilisers: Mixed fertilisers are composed of straight fertilisers that have been physically combined. They include two or three of the most important main plant nutrients. Mixed fertilisers are created by thoroughly mixing the materials together, which may be done either mechanically or by hand.

The importance of the fertiliser industry 

As a critical input for the expansion of Indian agriculture and an unavoidable consideration in the country’s objective of self-sufficiency in food grains, the fertiliser industry cannot be overstated in its significance for India. In addition to the fertiliser business, several agricultural operations that are closely tied to fertiliser manufacturing and distribution would fall under the umbrella of the fertiliser market.

The fertiliser business must meet the demands of farmers, who are the company’s primary customers. It will be impossible to double farmers’ actual income by FY23, which implies that continuing to subsidise fertiliser would go against the government’s stated aims for the agricultural sector, which is aggravated by climate change. The fertiliser policy should be reconsidered in light of this information.”

Fertiliser based subsidy schemes and other relevant subjects

A fertiliser subsidy programme known as the Nutrient Based Subsidy (NBS) was started in the year 2010. DAP, MAP, TSP, DAP Lite, MOP, SSP, and Ammonium Sulphate are just a few of the 22 types of decontrolled fertilisers that the NBS works with, along with 15 other types of complex fertilisers. As a result, farmers get these fertilisers at reduced prices because of their high concentration of nutrients (N, P, K, and S).

Conclusion:

In other words, applying fertiliser isn’t the goal in and of itself; it’s only a means to that purpose. As a result, the agricultural sector’s goal of increasing food production and availability should be seen in light of the wider macroeconomic aims of society. There is a need to revamp fertiliser delivery and take a fresh look at input subsidies in agriculture, so as to boost much-needed investment, and reorient the cropping pattern to resource efficiency.