List of Important Drugs and Chemicals

List of Important Drugs and Chemicals

A drug is a substance that influences human metabolism and helps people recover from illness. These can be harmful if taken in higher doses than suggested.


Drugs are substances that treat, prevent, or relieve disease symptoms. When introduced into a living system, drugs are chemical substances that impact or alter physiology. They might be either natural or man-made.

Chemically, these are structures with low atomic and molecular masses. Medicine is a term used to describe a substance that is therapeutically active and is used to diagnose, treat, or prevent a disease that attacks the body’s macromolecules and causes a biological response. The majority of them obstruct the nervous system’s (particularly of the brain) ability to generate a proper biological response. Higher amounts, however, can be harmful and are referred to as deadly doses.

The importance of a drug is determined by two factors: For example, it is used to treat a big number of individuals with a variety of health conditions, and it also encourages the pharmaceutical business to conduct more research and development. It is manufactured or produced not only by extracting medicinal plants such as Aloe Vera, Tulsi, Garlic, and others but also via organic synthesis.

List of Important drugs and Chemicals

Below is the insight of some the important drug and chemicals-

1. Antimicrobial Drugs

Bacteria, viruses, fungus, and other pathogens can cause diseases in humans and animals. Antimicrobials tend to destroy/prevent the formation of germs such as bacteria (antibacterial medications), fungi (antifungal agents), viruses (antiviral agents), and other parasites, and inhibit their pathogenic action. Some of the antimicrobial drugs are antibiotics and antiseptics.

Antibiotics- Because of their low toxicity in people and animals, antibiotics are employed as medications to treat infections. It refers to a material made entirely or partially by chemical synthesis that, at low doses, inhibits or kills microorganisms by interfering with their metabolic activities. First, in 1929, Alexander Flemming developed the antibiotic Penicillin, which is used to kill viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Tetracycline, Cephalosporin, Streptomycin, Gentamycin, Rifamycin, Chloromycitin, and other essential antibiotics are frequently used.

Antiseptics and disinfectants- Antiseptics and disinfectants are also substances that kill or prevent bacteria from growing. Antiseptics are used to treat live tissues such wounds, cuts, ulcers, and sick skin. Furacine, soframycin, and other similar compounds are examples. 

Dettol is a combination of chloroxylenol and terpineol that is commonly used as an antiseptic. Bithionol (also known as bithional) is a chemical that is added to soaps to give them antibacterial qualities. Iodine is a highly effective antiseptic. The tincture of iodine is a solution of 2-3% iodine in an alcohol-water mixture. It is used to treat wounds. Iodoform is also used as a wound antiseptic. Boric acid is a weak antiseptic for the eyes in a dilute aqueous solution.

2. Antifertility Drugs

 They are used for the concept of family planning. Norethindrone is a synthetic progesterone derivative that is commonly used as an antifertility medication. Ethynylestradiol is an estrogen derivative that is paired with a progesterone derivative (novestrol).

3. Sulpha Drugs 

These medications are mostly made up of sulphur and nitrogen, and they are quite effective against specific species. Sulfa medicines are used specifically for animals in some cases. Sulphanilamide, the first sulfa medication, was created in 1908. Sulfanilamides, Sulfadiazine, Sulpha pyridine, Sulphathiogol, are the examples of sulpha drugs.

4. Antipyretics 

It is used as a pain reliever for the treatment of fever, among other things. Antipyretic medications examples include Aspirin, Crocin, Phenacetin, Pyrimidine, etc.

5. Neurologically Active drugs

 Analgesics and tranquilizers are both neurologically active drugs. These have an impact on the nerve-to-receptor message transmission process.

Tranquilizers- It is a class of pharmacological substances that is used to alleviate stress, as well as mild to severe mental illnesses. These induce a sensation of well-being, which relieves worry, tension, impatience, and excitement. They are an important part of sleeping drugs. 

Tranquilizers come in a variety of forms and they work through many mechanisms. Noradrenaline, for example, is one of the neurotransmitters involved in mood fluctuations. When noradrenaline levels are low for whatever cause, signal-sending activity is reduced, and the person feels depressed. Antidepressant medications are essential in such instances. 

Some tranquilizers, such as chlordiazepoxide and meprobamate, are mild tranquilizers that can help you relax. Equanil is a drug that is used to treat depression and hypertension. Barbituric acid derivatives, such as veronal, amytal, nembutal, luminal, and seconal, form a significant class of tranquilizers. Barbiturates are hypnotic (sleep-inducing) drugs. Valium and serotonin are two more tranquilizers that are used mostly.

Analgesics– Analgesics lessen or eliminate pain without affecting awareness, producing mental confusion, incoordination, or paralysis, or causing other nervous system disruptions. They are classified as Narcotic and Non-narcotic. 

Narcotic analgesics– When delivered at therapeutic doses, morphine and many of its homologues ease pain and induce sleep. In high adequate quantities, these can cause stupor, coma, convulsions, and death. These analgesics are mostly used to treat postoperative pain, cardiac pain, and pain associated with terminal cancer, as well as during childbirth.

Non-narcotic analgesics- Examples of it are Aspirin and Paracetamol. These drugs are beneficial in treating skeletal pain, such as arthritic pain. Other effects of these medications include lowering fever (antipyretic) and inhibiting platelet coagulation. Aspirin is also used to prevent heart attacks because of its anti-clotting properties.


Chemistry is primarily concerned with the study of materials and the creation of new materials for the benefit of humanity. Drugs are developed to interact with specific targets in the least amount of time possible so that they do not influence other targets. This reduces negative effects and concentrates the efficacy of the drug. Moreover, drug chemistry is concerned with stopping or killing germs, keeping the body from contracting numerous infectious diseases, and relieving mental stress.