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Cell Division

Cell Division

Cell division can be considered as the process or phenomenon where a parent cell breaks down into two or more daughter cells. “Cell division” can be considered as one of the smallest parts of the cell cycle.

A Cell in biological terms can be defined as the tiniest unit of any “organism” that consists of a nucleus. It is the smallest “structural unit of an organism” and is capable of performing functions independently. The cell consists of “cytoplasm”, generally one nucleus, and several other “organelles.” An animal or plant cell can grow, divide, and proliferate independently in the living body. Growth of cells refers to the increment in the size and shape of the cell, whereas division of a cell refers to the production of two or more cells from one parent cell. The proliferation of cells refers to the increase in the number of cells through multiple “cell division” processes.

Definition of “Cell Division”

“Cell Division” in modern biology can be defined as the mechanism of reproduction of two or more cells from one “parent cell”. In biological terms, cell division is also known as “Cytokinesis”. One parent cell can get divided into several cells like 1=> 2 => 4 => 8. 

Functions of Cell Division

There are four different functions of the division of the Cells and they are as follows

  • Repair or replacement of damaged tissue
  • Organismal growth
  • Asexual reproduction
  • Embryos development
  • Types of Cell Division

Type-1: Binary fission

Binary Fission can be considered as the kind of “Cell Division” that occurs mainly for “bacteria and archaea or Prokaryotes”. The nucleoid or “the genetic material” in the cells are arranged in “a singular circular chromosome of the DNA”. In the case of “Eukaryotes”, The duplication of “the genetic material” is done before the division of the Cells from the parent cell to “Daughter Cells”. The Cells in the family of Eukaryotes are even more complicated than the Prokaryotes as it contains an increased number of organelles in the  Eukaryotes Cells. There are four phases in the Binary fission cell division and they are 

G1 phase- In this phase of the cell cycle, synthesis stages are prepared by the Cell itself in order to ensure the presence of the required materials that are needed for the synthesis of DNA.

S phase- In this phase of the cycle, a copy of DNA is created in order to make sure that the “complete set of Chromosomes” is there for the “Daughter Cells” at the end of each cycle.

G2 phase- This can be considered as the “second phase” where the “growth of the Cells” takes place. Cells get prepared for “Mitosis or Meiosis” in order to make sure that all the requirements of the raw materials are met for the “physical separation” of the Cells. 

M phase- In this phase, the cells get separated from each other in order to form two or more new cells. 

Type-2: Mitosis 

Mitosis is mainly a process through which a cell divides into two identical cells. It can be seen that the process mainly happens in order to replace worn out cells or for the purpose of growth. There are mainly four different phases that happen consequently in order to make the mitosis process happen. The first phase is prophase, the second phase is metaphase, the third phase is anaphase and the last phase is telophase. The Mitosis process mainly occurs in the nuclei of a cell and the process ends with the division of the telomere of the cells. The most important factor for the mitosis phase is to divide the chromosome into two different identical parts. nOther than that it can be seen that the main objective is to maintain the number of chromosomes present in the body. As mitosis process involves the development of two different identical cells, this process is also defined as “Equational Division”

Prophase- This is the first phase of mitosis and in this phase the nuclear materials of the mother cell are carried as well as divided into two daughter cells and the process involves the division of the properties of the cells equally.

Metaphase- In this phase chromosomes line up and they are captured by the microtubules. The Microtubules capture the chromosomes from the different poiles.

Anaphase- In this process the genetic materials that are divided equally from the nuclei are separated and two identical daughter cells are developed.

Telophase- This phase involves separation and pulling opposite sides of the poles. In this stage, the mitosis process is completed and the cells are divided.

Type-3: Meiosis

This phenomenon is involved in “the production of sperms and eggs” for the individuals have the capabilities to reproduce sexually. In this scenario, Zygote is formed from the fertilized eggs and sperm. The zygote is found to have a “complete set of Chromosomes.” In the process of Meiosis Cells undergoes a division process two times can be referred to as “Meiosis 1 and Meiosis 2.”

Conclusion

Cell division is one of the most important functions that happen within the human body. One of the most important aspects of “cell divisions” is to help multicellular organisms to grow. Other than that cellular damage repair and chromosome count maintenance is also involved with the cell division process. This study also concludes the functions of the cell divisions. The types of cell divisions are also concluded in this study.